Traffic control at work sites Technical Manual
Transport for NSW published Issue 6.0 of the Traffic control at work sites (TCAWS) Technical Manual in November 2020. Issue 6.0 of TCAWS provides the requirements for all temporary traffic control on NSW State Roads in line with recent industry and national practice updates. TCAWS Issue 6.0 aims to improve the safety of road workers and road users as they interact with roadwork sites in NSW.
Appendix A and Appendix E of TCAWS are provided below. These Appendices provide a number of templates and inspection checklists that may be used by project teams in the planning and implementation of temporary traffic management. Additionally Appendix A provides a template that may be used by practitioners who wish to seek departures from the requirements of TCAWS for their specific project.
Appendix A - Traffic management planning templates and tools
Appendix E - Inspection checklists and tools
Traffic control at work sites Technical Manual FAQs
These FAQs provide a summary of the key changes that have been introduced with the publication of TCAWS Issue 6.0.
The FAQs support the summary of changes fact sheet which you can view or download. To make it easier to find the answers you are looking for the fact sheet is written to align with the different sections of TCAWS.
If you still can't find the answer here, send us an email at Traffic.Engineering@transport.nsw.gov.au and we will get back to you directly.
Frequently Asked Questions
With the publication of the Issue 6.0 TCAWS we are sure you have lots of questions. As such, we at Transport for NSW have developed these handy FAQs to help you navigate some of those tricky questions you may have.
Good question! After exploring all the variations over the years from TCWs, TC@WS, TCaWS and TCAWS... just to name a few, we have settled on TCAWS.
Why? Well it's pretty simple, it still sounds like 'TEE-CAWS' when you say it and it is easy to type without changing between upper and lower case. So from here on in we will refer to the Traffic Control at Worksites Technical Manual simply as "TCAWS".
Since the publication of TCAWS Version 5.0 in July 2018, a significant amount of change has occurred in relation to temporary traffic management (TTM). These changes include:
- Publication of the Austroads Guide to Temporary Traffic Management (AGTTM);
- Update of Australian Standard AS 1742.3:2019 Manual of uniform traffic control devices, Part 3, Traffic control for works on roads;
- Inclusion of traffic control training requirements in the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017; and
- Transition of Roads and Maritime Services to Transport for NSW (Transport).
These changes have brought about a significant amount of new information relating to TTM, and with Transports commitment to harmonising with national practice where practicable, it was determined that an update to TCAWS be undertaken.
To enable Transport work sites to achieve compliance to Issue 6.0, from its publication date of 13 November 2020 until 13 May 2021, Version 5.0 will remain available for reference. Thus, there is a six month period of transition.
During this time, all works requiring the application of TCAWS are, at a minimum, to apply the requirements of Version 5.0, and seek to transition to the requirements of Issue 6.0.
From 13 May 2021 Version 5.0 of TCAWS is intended to be withdrawn, such that from this date, the requirements of Issue 6.0 will apply to all relevant works.
No. Due to the changes introduced into the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017 on 1 July 2020, the transitional period noted above does not apply to any provision relating to training or qualification of TTM roles. This includes any provision that specifies the types of traffic control work that a person with a particular qualification may undertake. Any changes relating to training or regarding the qualifications needed to perform tasks come into effect straight away.
Contrary to popular belief, TCAWS is not a state-wide document applicable to all roads. TCAWS is the primary technical reference document for Transport for NSW only.
This means, that if you are doing work within, or on behalf of Transport, you must follow the requirements of the manual. However, if you are doing work on a road managed by another roads authority, you must follow the TTM requirements of that particular roads authority.
Other roads authorities in NSW are generally Local Councils. In instances where Councils are not performing work on behalf of Transport, they must determine the most appropriate TTM will best manage their risk. This may be by applying TCAWS, the Austroads Guide to TTM, following AS 1742.3, developing their own procedures - or a combination or all.
It's important to note however, that regardless of which TTM requirements are applied by a Local Council, the work health and safety requirements in the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017 still apply.
In line with the above, the requirements of TCAWS apply when Transport construction or maintenance work is being performed that has the potential to impact traffic.
TCAWS does not apply to "standard work activities" associated with the operation of the road network, or other TTM for non-construction or non-maintenance activities on a road. Such "standard work activities" include but are not limited to:
- Emergency response;
- Compliance enforcement activities;
- School crossing operation; and
- General network inspections.
These activities need to develop their own divisional processes and/or procedures to manage the risks associated with undertaking these tasks. TCAWS may be one of a number of sources of information that may be used as a reference in the development of these processes or procedures.
Document structure and formatting
The document was restructured:
- To align the content into a more logical order of process - that is, TTM planning occurs first followed by implementation; and
- To align to the structure of national documentation such as the Austroads Guide to Temporary Traffic Management.
In Version 5.0 of TCAWS, there were instances where requirements applied, for example, to "speeds up to 80 km/h" or "speeds above 80 km/h". Thus, in order to provide greater certainty, the 5 km/h increment was introduced to clarify application of a requirement to say, 80 km/h (in this example).
To align with the strategy of AGTTM, TCAWS Issue 6.0 now refers to all speed zones in increments of 5 km/h.
It's important to understand that TCAWS includes the following types of statements:
- "must" statements are mandatory and are required to be followed;
- "should" statements are recommendations however they are not mandatory; and
- "may" statements are permissions or options often accompanied by conditions.
If you can't meet a "must" statement, or you think there is another way of achieving a safer outcome, then you will need to follow the Departures process which is contained in Section 2.8 of TCAWS. As part of applying for a departure, you will need to justify why the requirement cannot be met, and provide the detail of what will be done instead.
The TCAWS Departures process only applies to requirements contained in or prescribed by TCAWS. The TCAWS Departures process cannot be used to seek exemption from:
- Legislative requirements such as in the Road Transport Act, Roads Regulation or WHS Act and Regulation;
- Road Occupancy Licence requirements;
- Road Design requirements; or
- Other road authority requirements.
If you are uncertain if the TCAWS Departures process can be used for a certain requirements, contact the Traffic Engineering Services team within Transport via email@example.com
As of 1 July 2020, the Traffic Control Training (TCT) scheme was transitioned to SafeWork NSW under the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017. The transition of the TCT scheme from Transport to the WHS Regulation now means that SafeWork NSW are the agency responsible for the governance of the scheme. Information about Traffic Control Training can be found at the SafeWork NSW website.
To reflect the new requirements of the WHS Regulation relating to TCT, TCAWS requires all personnel undertaking traffic management on State roads or on behalf of Transport to have undertaken refresher training in the relevant competency in the preceding 2 years from the date of qualification.
With the transition of the TCT, SafeWork have upgraded the units of competency associated with the scheme. Although not mandatory, when transitioning to the SafeWork qualification, Transport highly recommends that all Transport employees undertake full training in the new units of competency to ensure skills and knowledge of those undertaking TTM remain current.
Traffic management planning process
A traffic management strategy is an information and data gathering step to inform the development of a Traffic Management Plan (TMP). The preparation of a traffic management strategy ensures the information needed to consider 'around' or 'past' options, is collected and provided to the person responsible for developing the TMP. This information provides the risk context of the work and environment to enable the person developing the TMP to make the best risk-based decisions relating to the TTM controls required.
A TMP is a tool that allows persons undertaking TTM to carefully consider the work type and work environment to determine the risks and controls needed to safely perform the work.
TCAWS requires that a TMP be developed for all TTM. However, TCAWS also permits a TMP to be developed based on either the:
- Work activity; or
- Work location (such as a road corridor).
A TMP that is based on work activity may be developed for a single activity that will be undertaken over a day or two, right through to a major project designed to be undertaken over 2 years. A work activity based TMP focuses on the various work activities that need to be undertaken at the location to complete the work. This is beneficial for scheduled static type work activities, usually undertaken as a project.
Alternatively, a TMP that is based on a work location may be developed where a specific section of the road network is managed by one work crew, with works undertaken at that location on a regular basis. This is beneficial for short term work, usually undertaken by maintenance crews.
A TMP may range in length from two pages for less complex work, through to an extensive multi-page plan for a major project.
A traffic management strategy must be developed by a person or team within Transport who has involvement in the planning or development of the works or project. The person completing the traffic management strategy does not have to have any TTM qualifications, but should have access to consult with a PWZTMP qualified person and should have a good knowledge of the project works required. In addition the person preparing the traffic management strategy should have the ability to consult with persons from road design, planning and other related stakeholders.
A TMP must be developed by a person with a Prepare Work Zone Traffic Management Plan (PWZTMP) qualification who is involved in the direct management or supervision of the works to be performed.
It is acknowledged that there may be a significant amount of time between the development of a traffic management strategy and a TMP. In all instances, the person developing a TMP should verify the content of the traffic management strategy prior to using the information to develop the TMP.
Yes. A traffic management strategy and a TMP are both mandatory documents when any TTM work associated with construction or maintenance of a road is undertaken on behalf of Transport.
If you have been asked to develop a TMP but have not received a copy of the traffic management strategy you should first contact the Transport representative requesting the works to seek a copy of the strategy.
If a strategy for the works cannot be obtained, a record of your attempt to seek the information should be kept as part of the traffic management plan when it is developed.
No. Although the process detailed in TCAWS is mandatory, the tools and templates provided in Appendix A for a traffic management strategy and TMP have been provided as one way to develop these documents. A project or division however may opt to develop a traffic management strategy or TMP using another template, provided the requirements of TCAWS are met.
Traffic control signs and devices
Due to the size of signs used within a multi-message sign (MMS), Transport only permit MMS to be used on roads where the existing permanent speed limit is 60 km/h or less. This is due to the amount of information contained on the sign and the ability for road users to read, comprehend and react to the information. For this reason, MMS must also not be used on multi-lane roads.
In NSW, regulatory signs such as "Road Work Speed Limit" signs and "No Right/Left Turn" signs are of different dimensions to the designs shown in the Australian Standards. The NSW designs are longer due to the text displayed under the graphic / annulus.
A specific requirement of AS 1742.3:2019 is that the pictorial or text of a sign must not be reduced in size to fit into an MMS frame. As a result, NSW regulatory signs will only fit into a two panel MMS frame.
Where the existing posted speed limit is above 45 km/h and work requires traffic to be stopped, an approved portable traffic control device (PTCD) must be used.
TCAWS permits the use of a STOP/SLOW bat in instances of emergency response, or where the use of a PTCD is demonstrated to not achieve the safest outcome. This may be when the time and risk associated with setting up a PTCD is disproportionate to the risk of using a STOP/SLOW bat. When determining the use of a STOP/SLOW bat the Prepare Work Zone Traffic Management Plan qualified person must:
- Risk assess and document the decision; and
- Have the decision approved by the one up manager of the person preparing the TMP.
No. Under the Road Transport Act 2013 a person must not install or display a prescribed traffic control device - which includes signs, devices and line marking - on, above or near a road without appropriate lawful authority.
Any signs or devices detailed in TCAWS provide the authorisation and conditions for their use however if something is not listed in TCAWS or in another Transport document, it must not be used without the appropriate written authorisation as per the Road Transport Act 2013.
Details on how written authorisation can be obtained for conditional use of a device that is not in TCAWS can be found in Section 2.8 of the document.
Traffic guidance schemes
In order to harmonise with national practice documents, Transport have changed all Traffic Control Plans or TCPs to Traffic Guidance Schemes or TGSs. Although the terminology has changed, the intent of the documents remains the same.
In addition, TCAWS Issue 6.0 provides more information about the minimum requirements of a TGS, including the minimum information to be included on the documents.
To ensure that only a Site Suitable or a Site Specific TGS is used on a work site, the detailed TCPs provided in previous publications have been replaced with example work site layouts. These layouts are intended to provide a visual description of the requirements of TCAWS. The work type layout examples in Issue 6 of TCAWS, like Version 5.0, were not prepared to be used directly as a TGS. All TGS for use on site must be approved as a Site Suitable or Site Specific TGS and must have been selected or developed in accordance with Section 7 of TCAWS Issue 6.0.
The Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017 requires a person conducting a business or undertaking to ensure that a person is qualified for the type of traffic control work they are performing.
In consultation with SafeWork NSW and the developers of the relevant units of competency for the ITCP qualification, Transport has been advised that an ITCP person is permitted to:
- Select a TGS from a Generic TGS library;
- Implement the TGS on site; and
- Modify a TGS within the tolerances detailed in AS 1742.3:2019.
To ensure workers and Transport are not in breach of the WHS Regulation, an ITCP qualified person is no longer permitted to change a TGS outside of the tolerances of AS 1742.3:2019.
Under the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, Transport must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the safety of workers and those who are impacted by the works. As a result, if a risk is identified on site and a PWZTMP person is not available to make changes to the TGS beyond the specified tolerances, the site must be made safe by being closed until a PWZTMP person has updated the TGS in accordance with TCAWS.
If you have further questions please contact your Traffic Engineering Services on Traffic.Engineering@rms.nsw.gov.au
If you still can't find the answer here, send us an email at Traffic.Engineering@transport.nsw.gov.au and we will get back to you directly.